Saturday, February 27, 2016

Surgical Instruments

Many surgical instruments of modern age are exactly the same in design as those in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His forceps , bone saws ,scalpels,  scissors for eye surgery and more than 200 tools he developed are more or less the same used today.The credit goes to him that he was the one who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and medical capsules can be made from it . In the 13th century, a Muslim doctor  Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered. Muslims doctors also invented anesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes;  a technique still used today.


The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realize that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first camera , he noticed how the light came through a hole in the shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the image He designed and built the first camera  (from the Arabic word for qamara dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental.

Monday, February 15, 2016


The story goes that an Arab named Khalid, who is responsible for some of the goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became animated after eating a certain berry. boiled the berries to make the first cup of coffee. Certainly the first record came out with a drink of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank coffee to stay awake all night to pray during special occasions. Late 15th century, he arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where he moved to Venice in 1645 was brought to England in 1650 Turk named Pasqua rosée who opened the first coffee shop in Lombard Street in the City of London.

Kahve qahwa Arabic and Turkish coffee and Italian became then English coffee

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